Causes and symptoms
her ni a
her ni ae
her ni a
Hernias may be caused by congenital defects in the formation of body structures, defects in collagen synthesis and repair, trauma, or surgery. Conditions that increase intra-abdominal pressures, e.g., pregnancy, obesity, weight lifting, straining (the Valsalva maneuver), and abdominal tumors, may also contribute to hernia formation.
Surgical or mechanical reduction is the treatment of choice.
direct inguinal hernia
indirect inguinal hernia
Preoperative: The surgical procedure and expected postoperative course are explained to the patient. The patient should understand that the surgery will repair the defect caused by the hernia but that surgical failures can occur. If the patient is undergoing elective surgery, recovery usually is rapid; if no complications occur, the patient probably will return home the same day as surgery and usually can resume normal activity within 4 to 6 weeks. Patients who undergo emergency surgery for a strangulated or incarcerated hernia may remain hospitalized longer commensurate with the degree of intestinal involvement. The patient is prepared for surgery.
Postoperative: Vital signs are monitored. The patient is instructed on the changing of position to avoid undue stress on the wound area. Stool softeners may be administered to prevent straining during defecation, and the patient is instructed in their use. Early ambulation is encouraged, but other physical activities are modified according to the surgeon’s instructions. The patient should void prior to discharge and be able to tolerate oral fluids. The patient is taught to check the incision and dressing for drainage, inflammation, and swelling and to monitor his/her temperature for fever, any of which should be reported to the surgeon. Analgesics are administered as prescribed, and the patient is taught about their use and supplied with a prescription for home use. Male patients are advised that scrotal swelling can be reduced by supporting the scrotum on a rolled towel and applying an ice bag. The patient is warned to avoid lifting heavy objects or straining during bowel movements. Drinking plenty of fluids should help the patient prevent constipation and maintain hydration. The patient is advised to make and keep a postoperative surgical visit and to resume normal activity and return to work only as permitted by the surgeon.